I ran into this today. The issue was that all of the existing connection servers were not the same version as the one I was installing. I have two replicated servers that I was in the process of upgrading from 7.2 to 7.8. I upgraded #2 to 7.8, then I spun up a third server and tried to install 7.8 on it. I was unable to do so, got the error in this post and could not find anything about it anywhere, so I decided to try the older version. I successfully installed 7.2 on the new server then upgraded it to 7.8. There was an issue with the cloud pod architecture not showing up on the new server, as well as global entitlements not showing up (somehow it created a different pod), so I uninstalled the connection server from the new one as well as the ADLDS instances. After getting all sessions moved over to #2, I upgraded #1, both of the existing servers were on 7.8. I then was able to install 7.8 directly onto the new server with no issues. Hope this helps with anyone else trying to search for this.
TLDR: make sure all of your existing connection servers are on the same version before installing a new replicated server, or ADLDS won’t replicate successfully.